American Literature, Best Critical, Uncategorized

Blog Post 3, Week 5

Give a brief account (in your own words) of why Whitman referred to Abraham Lincoln as “O Captain! My Captain”.

Walt Whitman’s 1865 poem, ‘O Captain! My Captain’, was written in honour of Abraham Lincoln shortly after his assassination during that year. Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the United States of America, in office for a 4-year period from March 1861 until his death in April 1865. It was during this time that the American Civil War was fought. This background knowledge of Lincoln helps us to understand why Whitman referred to him as ‘Captain’ throughout his poem.

Abraham Lincoln, 1863

‘O Captain! My Captain’ is an extended metaphor written around the theme of Lincoln’s death. Throughout the poem, the “ship” symbolises America with Lincoln represented as the “Captain” as it is he who was running the country, the ship. With the Civil War being fought in America at the time, Lincoln was well-loved for his accomplishments, especially with the banning of slavery in America. “Where on the deck my Captain lies, fallen cold and dead” completes this metaphor of Lincoln being the Captain of the ship that is America as we are able to feel the grief and sorrow felt towards Lincoln’s death throughout the poem as Whitman, alongside all of America, has just lost an important leader of their “vessel”.


“Abraham Lincoln.” Web. 4 Sept. 2017.

Whitman, Walt. O, Captain! My Captain. 1865. Print.



Gardner, Alexander. Abraham Lincoln. 1863. Web. 4 Sept. 2017.

American Literature, Uncategorized

Blog Post 1, Week 3

Can we apply the Native American sense of the importance of nature to make our own lives more whole and meaningful?

The importance of nature can be seen in our own lives today as it helps to fulfil our lives, to make our lives more whole and meaningful. I see this in my own life, in which nature, naturally, holds major importance. Whether it be through regular bushwalks, swimming or even picnics – it is something that makes us feel more relaxed and connected with the world around us. It helps us to clear our minds, to relax, to absorb all the nutrients our bodies need to survive and grow. It provides us with crucial elements we need to survive such as food and water. Without nature, there would be no life.

Zitkala-Ša, also known as Red Bird

This strong importance of nature can also be seen in Native American culture and writing as they portray the importance of spirituality and the connections they have with nature. Zitkala-Ša demonstrates how important nature is in a quote I thoroughly enjoy. She states that she would “prefer to their dogma my excursions into the natural gardens where the voice of the Great Spirit is heard in the twittering of birds, the rippling of mighty waters, and the sweet breathing of flowers”. The fact that she would prefer this over what many would prefer today, such as money, power and fame, goes to show that nature must provide us with something stronger than what these unnatural aspects of life provide us with. It is this idea and these writings that help us to see the importance of which nature should be held at, and the ways it can truly make our lives feel more whole and meaningful.



Zitkala-Ša, and Susan Rose Dominguez. American Indian Stories. 2nd ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003. Print.


Keiley, Joseph. Zitkala-Sa. 2017. Web. 15 Aug. 2017.

Nineteenth Century Literature

Blog Post, Week 11

“This play, while mocking deeply at the tribal customs of the late Victorians, has, at its heart, a wish to point the human race in the right direction: away from fraud, hypocrisy and such indecent preoccupation with material realities.”

1/ Write whether you agree or disagree with the last paragraph in this blog

I agree with the last paragraph in this blog as the satire used by Oscar Wilde within the play draws our attention to the ridiculousness of Lady Bracknell’s interests and expectations through the use of extensive exaggerations and humour.

Rather than focusing on love and emotion, Lady Bracknell shows us that what is most highly valued is how much money and status one has and whether or not they measure up to society’s standards and expectations.

Lady Bracknell states that “We live, I regret to say, in an age of surfaces“, an extremely ironic comment as she is not only referring to the society around her, but she is also unknowing criticizing herself as she is portrayed to be the worst part of this society that she is criticizing.

When reading this play, we today see the humour and exaggeration throughout as, although our world is still overly materialistic, we value character and love in people over their materials and possessions.

Best Critical, Nineteenth Century Literature

Blog Post 4 Week 6

Write a letter to Mr Gradgrind telling him what you think about the way he treated his own daughter, particularly with reference to the marriage arrangements he has created.

Dear Mr Gradgrind,

Are you even aware of your daughter’s feelings? Have you ever stopped to think of what she may think and feel, of why she does not speak up more?

You have blocked off feelings entirely, so much that those around you feel as though they must too. Louisa is a young woman full of emotion, and yet, she cannot open up, she cannot explore and express these feelings when she is around you. How could you treat your daughter in a way that she feels she is unable to be open with you?

And as if this is not enough, you are going to force her into an arranged marriage that she feels as though she cannot be honest about? Does your daughter even want to marry Mr Bounderby? How much does she know and like about him beyond his wealth?

He may be wealthy but have you thought to ask Louisa what qualities she wishes her husband to possess? I know that I personally would not list wealth to be towards the very top of mine. That I would wish to have a say in my marriage, to choose my own husband and be able to express each and every one of my feelings towards the matter openly. If my family arranged my marriage for me I would be furious! And to think you do not even know your daughter’s opinions and feelings towards the matter – or any matter in fact! It’s utterly disgraceful!

Mr Gradgrind, I propose that before you even consider planning your daughter’s future, you should take a step back and assess whether you truly have the right to make these decisions for her. How can one plan another’s future without even truly knowing them?

Thank you,


Nineteenth Century Literature

Blog Post 2 Week 4

Both Mary Wollstonecraft and Jane Austen are concerned with the way women lead their lives. Do you think there is any difference between what Austen and Wollstonecraft propose about how women should spend their time?

Both Mary Wollstonecraft and Jane Austen are concerned with the way women lead their lives.

Mary Wollstonecraft believes that women have an equal right to education as men do. In her A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Mary expresses her strong beliefs that women play an important role in the passing down of knowledge from one generation to another, and that through education, not only can this knowledge be passed down, but can also be used in order for women to grow wiser. She states that “if she [women] not be prepared by education to become the companion of man, she will stop the progress of knowledge and virtue”. Wollstonecraft believed that for children to be taught to understand “the true principle of patriotism, their mother must be a patriot; and the love of mankind, from which an orderly train of virtues can spring, can only be produced by considering the moral and civil interest of mankind”. This goes to show that if only men have the education, this knowledge cannot also be passed down by women resulting in children only gaining half of the knowledge and perspectives, and therefore, not all women will have the full extent to understand and grow.

While Mary Wollstonecraft believes that women should spend their time gaining an education, Jane Austen’s novel Emma portrays the idea that women should marry while also building upon their own place in society. Jane Austen’s character, Emma, spends her time “match-making” and focusing on her perceived ability to control fate. While it is later proved to Emma that she in fact does not have this ability, marriage is still a major affair in the novel with the women also showing their independence and desire to move up in society and create a name for themselves through marriage and/or wealth.

Jane Austen.jpg
Jane Austen

Greenblatt, Stephen, and M. H Abrams. The Norton Anthology Of English Literature. 9th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2012. Print.

Austen, Jane, and George Justice. Emma. 4th ed., New York, W.W. Norton & Co., 2012,.


Nineteenth Century Literature

Blog Post 1 Week 3

From reading the opening pages of Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman write what you think is Mary’s most important advice to women of her time.

Mary Wollstonecraft was a British feminist who – at the time – had strongly radical views. During Mary’s time, women did not have political rights, did not have the right to an education, could lose their property to their husband and be unable to take action within the court, and had limited opportunities for vocations outside of the home resulting in majority of women working domestic roles such as servants and nurses.

It is education that Mary Wollstonecraft focusses her main argument around in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. In the introductory paragraph, Wollstonecraft states, “if she [women] not be prepared by education to become the companion of man, she will stop the progress of knowledge and virtue”.  If both women and men are educated, they are able to work together in order to further educate their children. Wollstonecraft argues that “if children are to be educated to understand the true principle of patriotism, their mother must be a patriot; and the love of mankind, from which an orderly train of virtues spring, can only be produced by considering the moral and civil interest of mankind” and that “the education and situation of woman, at present, shuts her out from such investigations.” If women do not have the knowledge and understanding to pass this information down to her children the children will not receive the entire extent of the knowledge and virtues, whereas, if both women and men have this interest and knowledge, they can work together in order to share this knowledge from different understandings and perspectives.

It is from this that I believe that Mary Wollstonecraft’s best advice to women of her time is to seek out education and understanding and use this knowledge to not only grower wiser, but to also help ensure that this knowledge is passed down to their children and future generations.


Greenblatt, Stephen, and M. H Abrams. The Norton Anthology Of English Literature. 9th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2012. Print.